100 years after St. Augustine’s founding, English pirate Robert Searle sailed into Matanzas Bay. The pirates beneath his command killed 60 individuals, looted each constructing, and kidnapped one other 70 individuals for ransom. After Searle sailed away, the Queen Regent Mariana of Spain lastly approved the development of the settlement’s first masonry fort – Castillo de San Marcos.
All through the fort’s 200-year service historical past, it was owned by Spain, Nice Britain, and america, stood guard by way of practically a dozen wars, and served as a jail for Revolutionary Struggle and Civil Struggle prisoners. However the masonry fort, constructed from a neighborhood stone known as coquina, was by no means captured in battle.
Castillo de San Marcos Nationwide Monument preserves the oldest masonry fort within the oldest metropolis in america.
Temporary Historical past
Over fifty years after Ponce de Leon explored Florida, Spanish Admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés based St. Augustine in 1565. Spain has the New World to itself – it will be one other fifty years earlier than the British based Jamestown. The one threats got here from Native People and pirates, so the one defenses have been a sequence of rickety wood forts.
However 100 years after St. Augustine’s founding, English pirate Robert Searle sailed into Matanzas Bay. Pirates beneath his command killed 60 individuals, looted each constructing within the settlement, and kidnapped one other 70 individuals for ransom.
Queen Regent Mariana of Spain ordered the Florida governor to construct a masonry fort. Castillo de San Marcos – Spanish for “Fortress of Saint Mark” – was constructed from 1672 till 1695. As soon as accomplished, the fort featured coquina partitions 12 ft thick and 33 ft excessive, surrounded by a moat, and guarded by dozens of cannons mounted on the bastions.
Did You Know? Coquina is a sort of limestone native to coastal areas all over the world. The stone includes tiny seashells higher than 2mm in measurement that has been compressed over hundreds of years. Coquina is the Spanish phrase for “tiny shell.”
In 1702, the fort was attacked by a British fleet from Carolina Province – modern-day Jacksonville. After which, in 1740, John Oglethorpe sailed from Savannah to siege the fort. All through the many years, the coquina partitions held, and St. Augustine was by no means captured.
In 1763, the French and Indian Struggle ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. Spain was compelled to cede West Florida to Nice Britain. The British lastly took command of the fort and renamed it Fort Saint Mark – the English translation of the unique title.
However simply twenty years later, in 1783, the British have been compelled to return Florida to Spanish management on the finish of the American Revolutionary Struggle. The Spanish reinstated their title for the fort. However Floridians weren’t content material to stay beneath Spanish rule. In 1819, the Adams-Onis Treaty was signed, and the burgeoning United States bought East and West Florida from Spain.
The U.S. Struggle Division took possession of Castillo de San Marcos in 1821 and maintained a small garrison and jail within the fort. In 1825, the Struggle Division renamed it Fort Marion after Revolutionary Struggle hero Francis Marion. In 1900, the fort was decommissioned.
In 1924, Fort Marion and close by Fort Matanzas have been declared nationwide monuments. Though the Nationwide Park Service was created in 1916, the Struggle Division maintained the 2 nationwide monuments till they have been transferred in 1933.
Lastly, in 1942 an act of Congress reinstated the unique title of the nationwide monument – Castillo de San Marcos Nationwide Monument. It’s the oldest masonry fort in america that was by no means captured in battle – however nonetheless modified possession 3 times all through its historical past.
Did You Know? The Castillo de San Marcos is the oldest construction in St. Augustine, accomplished in 1695. However the González-Alvarez Home is the oldest home. The home’s first ground was accomplished in 1727, and the ultimate type seen at the moment was completed in 1790.
The NPS App is the official app of the Nationwide Park Service. The app takes all the knowledge obtainable on-line – park info, interactive maps, movies, journey alerts, and issues to do – and places it at your fingertips on a smartphone.
The Castillo de San Marcos Nationwide Monument web page within the app contains self-guided excursions, park films, and interactive maps.
Prime 5 Issues to Do at Castillo de San Marcos Nationwide Monument
- Take the self-guided strolling tour of the fort’s inside and canons alongside the wall – choose up a brochure on the ticket sales space or use the NPS app map.
- Stick round for a historic weapon demonstration with muskets or canons
- Discover the inside rooms of the fort, together with the jail cell the place Revolutionary Struggle heroes have been held in solitary confinement
- Benefit from the view of St. Augustine from the fort’s partitions
- Go for a stroll across the perimeter of the fort to the Previous Metropolis Gates
Castillo de San Marcos Self-Guided Strolling Tour
The easiest way to discover the Castillo de San Marcos is with the self-guided strolling tour. The tour is accessible by way of the NPS Park App. The tour begins on the sally port – or entrance into the fort – and passes by way of the inside rooms of the casement.
The rooms are crammed with interpretive indicators, historic artifacts, and intriguing items of historical past to discover. Park rangers are normally roaming by way of the rooms to reply any questions.
Artillery Self-Guided Strolling Tour
The unique design of Castillo de San Marcos didn’t embody an elevated platform alongside the fort’s partitions. However after a number of battles, the Spaniards realized limiting canons to the bastions on the fort’s corners was not sufficient.
The Artillery Self-Guided Strolling Tour is an enchanting exploration alongside the fort’s perimeter. Virtually 40 canons, mortars, and howitzers line the partitions overlooking St. Augustine and Matanzas Bay.
Spanish canons are gorgeously embellished in comparison with British or American canons. Intricate iron work covers the canons in lovely patterns.
And the view from the highest of the partitions isn’t unhealthy, both. It was my favourite spot exploring Castillo de San Marcos Nationwide Monument.
The Previous Metropolis Gates
In 1808, rising mistrust between the newly based United States and Spanish Florida led to the creation of defensive partitions round St. Augustine. The Previous Metropolis Gates are situated on the north finish of St. George Road. The gates have been the one entrance into the settlement when the partitions have been accomplished.
The Previous Metropolis Gates are maintained by the Nationwide Park Service as part of the nationwide monument. A portion of the unique defensive partitions stretches between Florida Freeway A1A and Castillo de San Marcos beside the gates.
Finest Time to Go to
There’s a purpose why Florida is named “The Sunshine State.” St. Augustine is graced with over 300 days of sunshine every year, so there isn’t a incorrect time to go to the Castillo de San Marcos.
However sure instances are higher than others.
Summer time temperatures exceed 90 levels with excessive humidity and frequent thunderstorms. Throughout these months, it’s best to control a climate alert app and carry a pocket-sized rain jacket.
The perfect time to go to the Castillo de San Marcos Nationwide Monument is spring and autumn. Throughout these months, the temperatures common round 70 levels with clear skies and low humidity.
Admission into the nationwide monument is $15 per particular person and is sweet for seven consecutive days. The America the Stunning annual cross grants free admission for the passholder and three company.
St. Augustine maintains a car parking zone in entrance of the Castillo de San Marcos Nationwide Monument. Nevertheless, getting a parking area in that lot is like getting an inexpensive tv on Black Friday. The lot hardly ever has empty parking areas, and a protracted line of tour buses making stops provides to the problem. Solely autos shorter than 21 ft are allowed – usually a crew cab pickup truck.
The Historic Downtown Parking Facility behind the St. Augustine Guests Middle is the perfect place to park whereas visiting the nationwide monument. It’s a 15-minute stroll alongside metropolis sidewalks from the parking storage to the nationwide monument’s entrance. Guests can safely cross the busy four-lane freeway by utilizing a pedestrian crosswalk at Fort Alley.
RVs, trailers, and autos over 21 ft can use the free metropolis car parking zone on the nook of West Castillo Drive and Riberia Road. It’s about one metropolis block behind the Historic Downtown Parking Facility.
Contemplating that Castillo de San Marcos was constructed within the late 17th century, the fort is remarkably accessible for many guests. Town car parking zone and the primary stage of the fort are accessible. This contains the ticket sales space, sally port, inside rooms, present store, and theater.
The place to Keep
St. Augustine has an abundance of inns, condos, and rental houses. The alternatives begin with budget-friendly choices close to Interstate 95 and undergo the roof with luxurious choices within the coronary heart of the historic district. Listed below are some choices if you wish to spend a couple of nights whereas exploring the Castillo de San Marcos Nationwide Monument.
Days Inn is a surprisingly comfy budget-friendly choice. The motel options free on-site parking, an out of doors swimming pool, and an on-site IHOP restaurant. Select from rooms with two full beds or one king mattress. Reserving.com | Expedia | Inns.com
La Quinta is a superb budget-friendly choice in St. Augustine. The lodge incorporates a good outside swimming pool and free on-site parking. Select from rooms with two queen beds, one king mattress, or a set with a king mattress and a sleeper couch. Reserving.com | Expedia | Inns.com
High quality Inn is awkwardly situated beside a busy intersection, nevertheless it’s nonetheless an excellent budget-friendly choice. The motel options free on-site parking and a pleasant outside swimming pool. Select from rooms with two queen beds or one king mattress. Reserving.com | Expedia | Inns.com
Vacation Inn is situated alongside the busy four-lane US Freeway 1 – regionally known as Ponce de Leon Boulevard. The lodge will not be fairly strolling distance to the Castillo de San Marcos. The lodge options free on-site parking, an out of doors swimming pool, and an on-site restaurant. Select from rooms with two queen beds, one king mattress, or suites that embody a sleeper couch. Reserving.com | Expedia | Inns.com
Hampton Inn can also be situated on Ponce de Leon Boulevard a couple of 10-minute drive from Castillo de San Marcos. On-site parking is proscribed and prices an extra $10 per day. The outside swimming pool is sweet, however don’t anticipate a peaceable night with its situated beside the busy freeway. However the lodge options comfy rooms and the perfect complimentary scorching breakfast. Select from rooms with two queen beds, one king mattress, or a studio with a king mattress and a sleeper couch. Reserving.com | Expedia | Inns.com
Finest Western Historic Inn is related to Hampton Inn’s property. This lodge additionally expenses $10 per day for parking and incorporates a boulevard-side swimming pool. Select from rooms with two queen beds or one king mattress. Reserving.com | Expedia | Inns.com
St. George Inn is situated on the pedestrian-only St. George Road one block from the Castillo de San Marcos. The luxurious rooms function balconies overlooking Orange Road with a view of the fort. Visitors should use the general public parking storage one block away and prices $12 per day. Select from immaculate rooms with two queen beds or one king mattress. Reserving.com | Expedia | Inns.com
Whereas the opposite premium inns are inside strolling distance of the Castillo de San Marcos, the Vacation Inn Categorical is inside strolling distance of the seashore. The lodge options loads of free on-site parking, a pleasant indoor swimming pool, and rooms with balconies. Select from rooms with two queen beds or one king mattress. Reserving.com | Expedia | Inns.com
Villa Victor is likely one of the greatest inns in St. Augustine. Positioned on Florida Freeway A1A, the lodge is 4 blocks from the Castillo de San Marcos – a couple of fifteen-minute stroll. The lodge options on-site parking for an extra $15 per day, an out of doors swimming pool, and on-site bar and restaurant. Select from rooms with two queen beds, one king mattress, or a set with a king mattress and a sleeper couch. Reserving.com | Expedia | Inns.com